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These smaller communities are populated by the municipality's indigenous groups, mostly Otomi and Nahuas. However, according to the census, only people speak an indigenous language, of whom also speak Spanish.

The city also has bilingual schools that follow the curriculum of the American educational system. As of , This is a 43 hectare area, partly defined by Insurgentes to the north, Quebrada to the west, and Terreplein and Huerta to the south.

Two buffer zones totaling about forty hectares are adjacent to the core zone. The layout of the center of the city is mostly a straight grid, as was favored by the Spanish during colonial times.

However, due to the terrain, many roads are not straight. There are no parking meters, no traffic signals and no fast food restaurants.

With a few exceptions, the architecture is domestic rather than monumental, with well-tended courtyards and rich architectural details.

Many of the larger structures have large entrances that once accommodated horses and carriages. In the historic center, there are an estimated two thousand doors, behind which there are at least two thousand courtyards of various sizes.

These courtyards are where the private gardens were, protected from dust, excess water and crime. The town is noted for its streetscapes with narrow cobblestone lanes, [28] that rise and fall over the hilly terrain.

Since the s, steps have been taken to preserve the historic center's charm. This required all restoration and new construction to conform to the area's colonial architecture.

This includes aspects such as traffic, garden spaces and the kinds of social events that may be held. The town has also put effort into preserving the cobblestone streets.

About half of the colonial buildings have been partially or fully converted into businesses such as stores, restaurants, galleries, workshops and hotels.

Since there is no zoning, residential and commercial establishments are mixed. In September , the first contemporary architectural structure arrived in the historic colonial center with the opening of Hotel Matilda.

The hotel's four buildings have a modern design, with public areas decorated with the art works of contemporary Latin artists, many of them very large pieces.

Only the exterior street wall, along Calle Aldama, reflects the colonial style. The oldest part of the town is the El Chorro neighborhood.

This is where the village of San Miguel was moved to in The Nahuatl name for the area was Izcuinapan or "place of dogs", and according to legend, dogs led Juan de San Miguel to this area to find this spring.

It is said Gutierrez's inspiration came from postcards and lithographs of Gothic churches in Europe; however, the interpretation is his own and more a work of imagination than a faithful reconstruction.

It was founded by Luis Felipe Neri de Alfaro in The second level has a choir window framed by pink sandstone. The bell tower is Moorish.

At the entrance of the main church, there is an inscription which states that Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and his brother Jose Joaquin served as priests here.

The sacristy contains a painting depicting the founding of the town in and its subsequent move to Izcuinapan in the El Chorro neighborhood. There is a small crypt under the altar with access through a small door to the right.

It is opened to the public one day each year, on November 2, Day of the Dead. It was designed in French style, with wrought iron benches and filled with Indian laurel trees.

In addition to the parish, other important structures, such as the Ignacio Allende House, the Canal House and the municipal palace overlook the garden.

Sisters of the Conception convent. This and other art institutions began to attract American exchange students who came to study and live.

It houses art exhibits, classrooms for drawing, painting, sculpture, lithography , textiles, ceramics, dramatic arts, ballet, regional dance, piano and guitar.

One hall of the old convent is dedicated to a mural by David Alfaro Siqueiros along with students from the art school, but it was never finished.

It was originally constructed as part of the convent. The church was constructed between and with an elegant cupola added by Zeferino Gutierrez in , inspired by the Les Invalides in Paris.

Topping the cupola is a lantern window with a statue depicting the Immaculate Conception. The structure was built in with Baroque and Neoclassical elements, located next to the San Miguel parish church.

This kind of museum focuses on the history of the local area from the prehistoric period to the present, especially the area's role in Mexico's national history.

The upper floor contains exhibits related to Ignacio Allende and some of the rooms are preserved as they looked when he lived there. It was remodeled as part of the preparations for Mexico's Bicentennial.

The restored museum was re-inaugurated by President Felipe Calderon in The main portal has two levels with an arch and a relief of an eagle on the keystone.

The main door is profusely decorated with high reliefs. On the north side of the Jardin Principal is the municipal palace.

It was first constructed in and called the Casa Consistorial. However, this building was heavily damaged several times since then and little of the original structure remains.

The current building has two floors. It is home to what is considered to be the first "independent" or modern municipal government formed after the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence.

This reestablishment of the city government under Liberal principles was done by Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and Ignacio Aldama on 17 September This church was partially built by incorporating a former chapel used by the mulatto population of the town.

That church became the chapel on the east side. The sacristy contains this last painting along with others depicting the life of Philip Neri.

It is richly decorated with three altars covered in gold leaf and is a replica of the Basilica della Santa Casa English: Basilica of the Holy House of Loreto, Italy.

The main portal is in Churrigueresque Spanish Baroque style with two levels and a crest in the shape of a large seashell.

The interior has a layout of a Latin cross covered with vaults with side walls covered in oil paintings done by Agapito Ping between and This plaza was originally constructed in and was supposed to be the original center of the town.

It is next to the Plaza de la Soledad and served as the main marketplace. Today, it has a equestrian statue of Ignacio Allende that dominates it.

The San Francisco Church was begun in and was finished more than twenty years later, when architectural styles were changing.

The later bell tower was constructed in in Neoclassical style by architect Francisco Eduardo Tresguerras.

This library was established by Helen Wale, a Canadian, who wanted to reach out to local children. It is the largest privately funded, publicly accessible library in Mexico with the second-largest English-language book collection.

While self-supporting, it also sponsors educational programs for local youth including scholarships, donations of school supplies and free English and computer classes for children.

This park was established at the beginning of the 20th century on the banks of a river in French style with fountains, decorative pools, wrought iron benches, old bridges and footpaths.

There is an area for children with playground and basketball. The garden area is filled with plants and trees of the region, chirimoyos , various berries and walnuts.

The water areas host a large number of herons. Near here there is a fountain dedicated to Ignacio Allende.

Another important market is the Mercado de Artesanias , which sells a wide variety of items such as those made from wool, brass, paper mache and blown glass, tin and silver.

One figure that features prominently on merchandise is that of a frog, as the state's name of Guanajuato means "place of frogs". The market is located in a narrow alley filling three blocks behind the city's main fruit and vegetable market.

The merchandise here is more authentic and cheaper than that found around the main square. The Institute Allende is located in an enormous complex, which the De la Canal family built as a retreat and hacienda.

The old house is filled with various courtyards, a private chapel with colonial-era frescos, modern art gallery and restaurant.

In , it was converted into an art institute, offering courses in silverwork, ceramic and Spanish, and attracting hundreds of students each year. The Santo Domingo church was part of a monastery complex.

The complex has a main portal in sandstone with two auxiliary portals. The first has an access arch and a door made of mesquite wood, with reliefs of geometric shapes and fish, along with a hand with pomegranate in sandstone.

These symbolize the Archangel Raphael and John of God. The royal cartographers did not understand the native Mexican mapmaking methods and they had been forgotten in storage for centuries until they were brought to Mexico and San Miguel de Allende's exhibition at the Centro Cultural Los Arcos.

The Camino Real English: The Casa de Inquisidor English: Inquisitor's house is located between Hernandez Macias and Hospicio streets.

The Angela Peralta Theater was originally designed to host opera. It was inaugurated in with a performance by the most-prominent soprano of Mexico at that time, Angela Peralta.

It continues to host a variety of musical events such as the Jazz Festival and the Chamber Music Festival. This line was constructed in the s with service beginning in As the municipal seat, the town of San Miguel de Allende has been the center of local government for about other communities, many of which have fewer than 50 people.

As of , [update] the municipality had a total population of , with 62, living or about The largest communities outside of the municipal seat include Los Rodriguez 2, people , Corral de Piedras de Arriba 1, people and Los Galvanes 1, people.

The municipality is located in the far eastern side of the state of Guanajuato. It has a territory of 1, The municipality extends over two of the state's natural regions: The entire municipality belongs to the national Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

This restricts urban development and agriculture in the area. The main river in the area is the Laja, which crosses from north to south before finally emptying in the Lerma River in the municipality of Salamanca.

The river currently has serious pollution issues because it is used for discharge of wastewater without prior treatment.

Most of this discharge is from the residential areas of San Miguel and Dolores Hidalgo. In addition to the river, there are four principal arroyos that pass by the municipal seat: The last receives most of the area's runoff during the rainy season and feeds the Las Colonias and El Obraje dams.

The most important dam in the area is the Ignacio Allende dam, located in the west of the municipality. While this dam controls flooding along the Laja River, local residents say that the water collected in its reservoir goes to the area around Guadalajara, far to the west of San Miguel, due to the provisions of the federal act creating the dam and reservoir.

Other dams in the area include La Cantera and Bordo Grande located in the south and north of the municipality, respectively, along with the aforementioned Las Colonias and El Obraje, which are mostly used for irrigation.

The municipality also has fresh water, thermal and alkaline springs, many of which are used as ecotourist attractions, such as the El Chorro, Montecillo, El Cortijo, Cieneguita, Atotonilco and Taboada spas.

Summers are moderately hot with a rainy season that generally producing sporadic thunderstorms. Winters are cool and moderate.

One exception to this is the extreme west of the municipality where the climate is wetter. With only people as of [update] , Atotonilco formally Sanctuary of Atotonilco is not the largest community in the municipality, but it is the best known due to its religious sanctuary, which has World Heritage Site status along with the historic center of San Miguel.

The Atotonilco sanctuary has plain high fortress-like walls. The style of the painting imitates Flemish painting, which was known through Belgian prints that the Spanish brought from Europe.

El Charco del Ingenio, located outside of the town, is an ecological reserve and botanical garden and is privately funded.

It is dedicated to the restoration and preservation of Mexican flora and propagates mainly cactus species in danger of extinction.

The canyon was the center of a number of myths and legends during the pre-Hispanic period. This spring was so powerful it was the hydraulic power for an enormous water wheel and water supply to the city thus, the name "Ingenio".

The water from this spring rose in the fountains throughout colonial San Miguel. An old dam that was part of this complex of hydraulic power became silted.

A great flood ensued when the dam broke in during heavy rains. It is a stable wetland area now for the botanic gardens, with areas of the reserve crisscrossed with walking paths.

There are opportunities for mountain biking, rock climbing, bird watching, camping and horseback riding. According to biographer John Virtue, " Stirling Dickinson is without doubt the person most responsible for San Miguel de Allende becoming an international art center".

Although only an amateur painter himself, Dickinson became co-founder and director of the Escuela Universitaria de Bellas Artes, an art institute that he opened in a former convent only a few months after his arrival.

Due to its growth as a tourist destination, some of the most obvious culture seen on the streets of the town relates to visitors, both foreign and Mexican.

To cater to these visitors, the town contains cafes, boutiques, art galleries, upscale restaurants and hotels, and a wide variety of bars and nightclubs.

These include the Instituto Allende with credits transferable to U. Many of the festivals here are purely Mexican, combining social activity with religious expression.

Throughout the year there are pilgrimages, all-night vigils, ringing church bells, processions and fireworks. The angel's feast day is 29 September, but festivities take place for an entire week.

Activities include private parties, sporting events, cultural events, indigenous dance and more. The week is popularly called the Fiestas de San Miguel de Allende.

The finale is a procession of the actual image of St. Michael usually high on the main altar of La Paroquia, and he is taken on a flower-covered dais to "visit" the main churches in the historic district.

Fireworks are a part of all festivities. Holy Week begins with an exhibition of altars dedicated to the Virgin of Sorrows and end with the Procession of Silence.

Then the procession begins, which represents the fourteen scenes of the Passion before his crucifixion.

Many of the townspeople participate in the event, with children dressed as angels and adults in period clothing carrying statues of Jesus.

The procession winds its way along the main streets of the historic center completely in silence. There are also secular and cultural festivals during the year.

One of the purposes of the event is to bring this type of music to streets and other public venues as well as traditional concert halls such as the event's home, the Angela Peralta Theater.

Bicentennial celebrations also included events such as the Ballet Mazatl. SMART is a multi-media cultural festival, held annually in May, that combines exhibits by Mexican artists with a variety of culinary and social events at local hotels, including the festival founder Hotel Matilda, Dos Casas Hotel and L'Otel.

San Miguel de Allende has long had a reputation as a haven for visual artists. In the Spanish colonial period, San Miguel was the largest recipient of funding for the arts.

Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias.

As the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure.

The city was founded on July 11, as urban development began. Often known by its supposed initials, T. The commonly accepted theory among historians is that the modern-day Tijuana is derived from a word belonging to the Kumeyaay language — the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region.

Tijuana derives from the Kumeyaay word Tiwan , meaning by-the-sea. The story has become a popular myth with residents of the city and has particular resonance among those who think of the city as a place of hospitality.

In English, the name is usually pronounced as having four syllables: In California , and particularly in Southern California , it is often referred to as T.

Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense , while in English the demonym is Tijuanan.

A very common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero. The nickname Tijuas is increasingly popular among residents and visitors alike.

Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana , describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and frequently crossing the border.

The land was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay , a tribe of Yuman -speaking hunter-gatherers. The majority of the 1, Hispanic families living in Alta California stayed there, though some moved south to remain inside Mexico.

Because of this Tijuana gained a different purpose on the international border. The area had been populated by ranchers, but Tijuana developed a new social economic structure.

These were farming and livestock grazing, plus as a transit area for prospectors. The date of the agreement, July 11, , is recognized as the founding of the city.

From the late 19th century to the first few decades of the 20th century, the city attracted large numbers of Californians coming for trade and entertainment.

The California land boom of the s led to the first big wave of tourists, who were called "excursionists" and came looking for echoes of the famous novel " Ramona " by Helen Hunt Jackson.

Federal troops then arrived. Assisted by the "defensores de Tijuana", they routed the revolutionaries, who fled north and were promptly arrested by the United States Army.

This included curio shops, regional food, thermal baths, horse racing and boxing. The first professional race track opened in January , just south of the border gate.

It was almost immediately destroyed by the great "Hatfield rainmaker" flood of Rebuilt in the general area, it ran horse races until the new Agua Caliente track opened in , several miles south and across the river on higher ground.

Legal drinking and gambling attracted U. S nationals in the s during Prohibition. In , the city attempted to shed its negative image of hedonism and lawlessness created by American mob empresarios by renaming itself Zaragosa , but its name soon reverted to Tijuana.

In , the Agua Caliente Touristic Complex was opened, including hotel, spa, dog-track, private airport, golf course and gambling casino.

A year later, the new Agua Caliente Racetrack joined the complex. During the eight years it operated, the Agua Caliente hotel, casino and spa achieved a near mythical status, with Hollywood stars and gangsters flying in and playing.

Rita Hayworth was discovered there. Musical nightclub productions were broadcast over the radio. A singer known as "la Faraona" got shot in a love-triangle and gave birth to the myth of a beautiful lady ghost.

Remnants of the Agua Caliente casino can be seen in the outdoor swimming pool and the "minarete" actually a former incinerator chimney nearby the southern end of Avenida Sanchez Taboada, on the grounds of what is now the Lazaro Cardenas educational complex.

The buildings themselves were torn down in the s and replaced by modern scholastic architecture. With increased tourism and a large number of Mexican citizens relocating to Tijuana, the city's population grew from 21, to 65, between and With the decline of nightlife and tourism in the s, the city restructured its tourist industry, by promoting a more family-oriented scene.

Tijuana developed a greater variety of attractions and activities to offer its visitors. In , PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana while making an appearance in the plaza of Lomas Taurinas, a neighborhood nestled in a valley near Centro.

The shooter was caught and imprisoned, but doubts remain about who the mastermind might have been. In the new century, Tijuana has become an important city of commerce and migration for Mexico and US.

Thanks to the realization of cultural and business festivals, the city has improved its image before the world, standing out as a competitive city for investment.

Currently, the commercial and business sector is committed to the boom in the gastronomic industry, craft beer, entertainment and real estate, as well as medical tourism, to attract visitors and investors.

Tijuana is the western-most city in Mexico, and consequently in Latin America , and the 2nd largest city of northern Mexico.

To the southwest of the city is Rosarito Beach , while to the south is unincorporated territory of Tijuana Municipality. The city is nestled among hills, canyons, and gullies.

The central part of the city lies in a valley through which flows the channeled Tijuana River. Housing development in the Tijuana Hills has led to eradication of many seasonal mountain streams.

This lack of natural drainage makes places within the city vulnerable to landslides during the rainy season. Tijuana is noted for its rough terrain, which includes many canyons, steep hills, and mesas.

The river's lower reaches harbor the last undeveloped coastal wetlands in San Diego County, and some of the last in Southern California, amidst a highly urbanized environment at the southern city limits of Imperial Beach.

As Downtown Tijuana was built at the bottom of the river valley, the district is subject to seasonal flooding created by drain-off from the Tijuana Hills.

During this time, east-bound portions of the Via Rapida east-west highway may be blocked off by the Tijuana Police due to hazardous conditions.

The city's skyscraper history is relatively recent. Overall, the city maintains 33 completed structures with other proposed and under-construction skyscrapers.

The Tijuana skyline is the fifth largest skyline in Mexico and is located in the Zona Rio and to a smaller extent, Playas de Tijuana.

In the Zona Rio the buildings are concentrated on the Tijuana River, lined parallel to the river; and on the edges of the Tijuana Country Club.

In Playas the high rises are currently focused on the coast. Recent construction on high rises has begun in the aforementioned areas, as buildings such as New City Residential and Grand Hotel Tijuana have been developed and taken prominent places in the skyline as the tallest buildings.

From Tijuana's skyline the San Diego skyline can also be seen. The municipality of Tijuana is divided into eight administrative boroughs, or Delegaciones.

The Tijuana metropolitan area occupies all of borough seats. The boroughs are in turn divided into colonias or ejidos. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban planning , civil registry , inspection, verification, public works and community development and are served by a delegado.

It has characteristics of the Mediterranean climate Csa found to the immediate north, with most of the annual precipitation falling in the winter, between the months of November and March.

During the rainy season, November through March, storms originate from fronts entering off of the Pacific Ocean.

January is the wettest month of the year for the city and during this time a periodic event, similar to June Gloom , is observed created by marine layer.

January is the coolest month, during which temperatures average In the city April signifies the end of winter and the start of Santa Ana winds — observed in Southern California as well.

The hottest months in the city, also the dry season, are August and September, during which temperatures average Summers are by far the driest time of year since influences from the California Current and the North Pacific High suppress the formation of rainfall caused by the North American Monsoon.

As in coastal Southern California, air pollution sometimes occurs during periods of temperature inversion, especially during summer and fall, but unlike Mexico City is seldom severe and in recent years has lessened due to cleaner car engines.

Frost and snow are rare phenomena in the city as temperatures are usually well above freezing. Yet, in December , snow fell in the city and in January feather light snow fell in the east of the city.

However, excessive amounts of snow fall have never been recorded in the city. On February 14, a winter storm caused an unusual snowfall in the upper reaches of the hills of the city.

Tijuana has a diverse cosmopolitan population which includes migrants from other parts of Mexico and from all over the world. Tijuana has one of Mexico's largest Asian populations, predominantly consisting of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese immigrants.

Tijuana also has a large and rapidly growing population of United States citizens, mostly from Southern California.

The city also has many Lebanese , Italian, French, Spanish citizens. Recently, the city has received a large influx of Haitian immigrants.

Because of the diversity of Mexico and the influx of immigrants from almost every region in the country, there are no accurate estimates on ethnicity or race of the current population.

The heavy influx of immigrants to the city and municipality of Tijuana has led to job creation in the form of over twin-plant maquiladora factories, which serve as the basis of employment for the majority of the working-class people in northern Mexico.

The high poverty level in Tijuana is attributed to the city's "magnet status" for people who have come from the poorer south of the nation and citizens from other nations seeking to escape from extreme poverty.

Tijuana holds a status that provides the possibility of employment as well as higher education and the dream of crossing the border. Tijuana and Baja California in general have much stronger economies and higher incomes than other Mexican cities along the United States border, as well as more moderate weather.

Tijuana today is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico with an average of 80, people moving to Tijuana yearly. The city experiences the construction of 26, new settlers a year [ citation needed ] that has led to the unregulated, illegal squatter homes that takes place in the hills and valleys of ever expanding Tijuana, most of these areas are still without city services like sidewalks, paving, streetlights, and public transit.

This is an ongoing process: Squatter areas are home to displaced and uprooted people, among them the indigenous and poverty stricken, migrants deported from the USA, many of whom are also without Mexican citizenship.

In recent years, working class suburban housing estates have sprung up in the fringes to provide safe homes and a sense of land ownership, to escape and isolate their families and young ones from the violence of the drug war and squatter areas, these outlying communities tend to be much better equipped than their squatter counterparts.

Nevertheless, some remote areas are drug lords plantations for narcotics, and delinquency spreads to even areas that are considered safe havens, which periodically come to light in the newspapers.

National Population Council CONAPO data has estimated that by , growth rates maintaining, the city will become the second largest in Mexico and anchor to the fourth largest metropolitan area in Mexico.

The suburban sprawl observed in Tijuana leaves the downtown and beach areas relatively affluent. The population discrepancies may be explained by a few factors.

Shanty towns that have not been rasterized [ clarification needed ] and an undercount, people having left Tijuana for United States, and people leaving Tijuana for the interior of Mexico due to the intensification of the drug war, and suburbanization outside city limits but still inside the municipality.

Tijuana, because of the dreams of border crossers, and its relatively higher wages compared to the rest of Mexico, naturally attracts immigrants.

Since an improvement in security since , the population of Tijuana as reflected in the Mexican census is expected to return to its normal growth curve; the great reduction in violence should make the settlement of Tijuana an attractive option again versus fringe valleys, nevertheless exact figures from the census await.

Tecate Municipality , adjacent to Tijuana Municipality, has not yet been considered by the government as part of the metropolitan area. However, there is great economic and cultural exchange between the cities regions though there are still expanses of rural land.

As Tijuana grows, many of its suburbs have been built increasingly inland, and in the direction of Tecate ; Valley of the Palms is a large planned city between the two.

Tijuana is well known for being the birthplace and base of the Tijuana Cartel. Homicides peaked in , when people were killed, [28] compared with in [29] and in the first eight months of During peak years of violent crime in the city, gun battles between rival cartels, and between cartels and the police, erupted in public.

In April , police found 1, shell casings on various streets after one battle left 13 suspected drug traffickers dead. This was the highest number of murders since The PAN has been the dominant party in the city for 20 years.

Historically the PRI had been the dominant party in regional politics, until when the PAN began to dominate the city, until yet again, in , PRI began regaining prominence and won the Mayor's Office.

Less prominent parties also maintain relations with the dominant parties. Tijuana's importance and rise to a global city has led to its recognition among countries worldwide.

In addition to international cultural recognition, Tijuana has received political recognition and is a developing a political center currently host to eight consulates from European, Asian, and North American countries.

Tijuana is a large manufacturing center, and in addition to tourism, it serves as a cornerstone of the city economy.

In the past decade alone, Tijuana became the medical device manufacture capital of the North American continent, surpassing previous leader Minneapolis - Saint Paul.

The city's proximity to Southern California and its large, skilled, diverse, and relatively inexpensive workforce make it an attractive city for foreign companies looking to establish extensive industrial parks composed of assembly plants that are called maquiladoras , even more so than other cities in the US-Mexican border zone, taking advantage of the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA to export products.

At its peak, in Tijuana had roughly of these 'maquiladoras' today [ when? Many of the maquiladoras are located in the Otay Mesa and Florido sections of Tijuana.

There are also some high-tech firms and telemarketing companies in the city, drawing people with technical trade and college degrees to Tijuana.

One example is Telvista, a Texas-based telemarketing company that maintains three call centers along Blvd. This makes Tijuana a popular city for migrant workers as well as college graduates from other parts of Mexico as well as other countries to the south.

Binational economic development along the US—Mexico border is key to the development of Tijuana going forward. Tijuana also relies on tourism for a major part of its revenue.

About , visitors cross by foot or car from the San Ysidro point of entry in the United States every day. Restaurants and taco stands , pharmacies, bars and dance clubs, and shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are part of the draw for the city's tourists, many located within walking distance of the border.

Mexico's drinking age of 18 vs. Tijuana is also known for its red-light district Zona Norte also referred to as La Coahuila after one of its main streets with legal prostitution in strip clubs and on the street.

Many medications still require a Mexican prescription, which can be obtained from adjacent doctors' offices. People filling up prescriptions for drugs classified in the US as Schedule II or Schedule III have found it more difficult to locate such medications, and the purchase of pseudoephedrine also has become restricted by Tijuana pharmacies, just as in the U.

To fill a prescription in Tijuana for any drug covered by the US Controlled Substances Act and legally bring it into the United States requires a prescription from the United States for re-import.

Americans can import up to a day supply of non-controlled medications for personal use to the USA from Mexico and other countries.

Businesses such as auto detailing, medical and dental services and plastic surgery are heavily marketed, and are usually much less expensive than in the U.

Tijuana is headquarters for Mexico's largest gambling concern, Grupo Caliente, and home to several of its casinos.

Tijuana possesses a diversity of shopping malls. Plaza Mundo Divertido is off of Tijuana's main east-west highway with arcades and rides for the whole family.

Plaza Carrousel , so named because the mall contains a children's merry-go-round, is minutes from the Cinco y Diez retail hub centered around a former five and dime store.

The beach community of Playas de Tijuana saw a burst of construction in , which yielded the Plaza Coronado complex next to the existing Comercial Mexicana-anchored Centro Comercial Playas.

Tijuana was the headquarters of store Dorian's department store chain until its demise in Tijuana, along with the nearby Valle de Guadalupe , has recently become a culinary hotspot due to its Baja Med cuisine, including chefs such as Javier Plascencia , but also for its tacos, other street food, food trucks, coffee houses and artisanal beer.

Tijuana is home to many private Primary Schools, Secondary Schools and High Schools as well as nationally high ranked colleges and universities.

These schools maintain recognition for their demands and high standards.

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Since the s, steps have been taken to preserve the historic center's charm. This required all restoration and new construction to conform to the area's colonial architecture.

This includes aspects such as traffic, garden spaces and the kinds of social events that may be held. The town has also put effort into preserving the cobblestone streets.

About half of the colonial buildings have been partially or fully converted into businesses such as stores, restaurants, galleries, workshops and hotels.

Since there is no zoning, residential and commercial establishments are mixed. In September , the first contemporary architectural structure arrived in the historic colonial center with the opening of Hotel Matilda.

The hotel's four buildings have a modern design, with public areas decorated with the art works of contemporary Latin artists, many of them very large pieces.

Only the exterior street wall, along Calle Aldama, reflects the colonial style. The oldest part of the town is the El Chorro neighborhood.

This is where the village of San Miguel was moved to in The Nahuatl name for the area was Izcuinapan or "place of dogs", and according to legend, dogs led Juan de San Miguel to this area to find this spring.

It is said Gutierrez's inspiration came from postcards and lithographs of Gothic churches in Europe; however, the interpretation is his own and more a work of imagination than a faithful reconstruction.

It was founded by Luis Felipe Neri de Alfaro in The second level has a choir window framed by pink sandstone. The bell tower is Moorish. At the entrance of the main church, there is an inscription which states that Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and his brother Jose Joaquin served as priests here.

The sacristy contains a painting depicting the founding of the town in and its subsequent move to Izcuinapan in the El Chorro neighborhood. There is a small crypt under the altar with access through a small door to the right.

It is opened to the public one day each year, on November 2, Day of the Dead. It was designed in French style, with wrought iron benches and filled with Indian laurel trees.

In addition to the parish, other important structures, such as the Ignacio Allende House, the Canal House and the municipal palace overlook the garden.

Sisters of the Conception convent. This and other art institutions began to attract American exchange students who came to study and live.

It houses art exhibits, classrooms for drawing, painting, sculpture, lithography , textiles, ceramics, dramatic arts, ballet, regional dance, piano and guitar.

One hall of the old convent is dedicated to a mural by David Alfaro Siqueiros along with students from the art school, but it was never finished.

It was originally constructed as part of the convent. The church was constructed between and with an elegant cupola added by Zeferino Gutierrez in , inspired by the Les Invalides in Paris.

Topping the cupola is a lantern window with a statue depicting the Immaculate Conception. The structure was built in with Baroque and Neoclassical elements, located next to the San Miguel parish church.

This kind of museum focuses on the history of the local area from the prehistoric period to the present, especially the area's role in Mexico's national history.

The upper floor contains exhibits related to Ignacio Allende and some of the rooms are preserved as they looked when he lived there.

It was remodeled as part of the preparations for Mexico's Bicentennial. The restored museum was re-inaugurated by President Felipe Calderon in The main portal has two levels with an arch and a relief of an eagle on the keystone.

The main door is profusely decorated with high reliefs. On the north side of the Jardin Principal is the municipal palace.

It was first constructed in and called the Casa Consistorial. However, this building was heavily damaged several times since then and little of the original structure remains.

The current building has two floors. It is home to what is considered to be the first "independent" or modern municipal government formed after the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence.

This reestablishment of the city government under Liberal principles was done by Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and Ignacio Aldama on 17 September This church was partially built by incorporating a former chapel used by the mulatto population of the town.

That church became the chapel on the east side. The sacristy contains this last painting along with others depicting the life of Philip Neri. It is richly decorated with three altars covered in gold leaf and is a replica of the Basilica della Santa Casa English: Basilica of the Holy House of Loreto, Italy.

The main portal is in Churrigueresque Spanish Baroque style with two levels and a crest in the shape of a large seashell.

The interior has a layout of a Latin cross covered with vaults with side walls covered in oil paintings done by Agapito Ping between and This plaza was originally constructed in and was supposed to be the original center of the town.

It is next to the Plaza de la Soledad and served as the main marketplace. Today, it has a equestrian statue of Ignacio Allende that dominates it.

The San Francisco Church was begun in and was finished more than twenty years later, when architectural styles were changing.

The later bell tower was constructed in in Neoclassical style by architect Francisco Eduardo Tresguerras. This library was established by Helen Wale, a Canadian, who wanted to reach out to local children.

It is the largest privately funded, publicly accessible library in Mexico with the second-largest English-language book collection.

While self-supporting, it also sponsors educational programs for local youth including scholarships, donations of school supplies and free English and computer classes for children.

This park was established at the beginning of the 20th century on the banks of a river in French style with fountains, decorative pools, wrought iron benches, old bridges and footpaths.

There is an area for children with playground and basketball. The garden area is filled with plants and trees of the region, chirimoyos , various berries and walnuts.

The water areas host a large number of herons. Near here there is a fountain dedicated to Ignacio Allende.

Another important market is the Mercado de Artesanias , which sells a wide variety of items such as those made from wool, brass, paper mache and blown glass, tin and silver.

One figure that features prominently on merchandise is that of a frog, as the state's name of Guanajuato means "place of frogs".

The market is located in a narrow alley filling three blocks behind the city's main fruit and vegetable market. The merchandise here is more authentic and cheaper than that found around the main square.

The Institute Allende is located in an enormous complex, which the De la Canal family built as a retreat and hacienda.

The old house is filled with various courtyards, a private chapel with colonial-era frescos, modern art gallery and restaurant.

In , it was converted into an art institute, offering courses in silverwork, ceramic and Spanish, and attracting hundreds of students each year.

The Santo Domingo church was part of a monastery complex. The complex has a main portal in sandstone with two auxiliary portals. The first has an access arch and a door made of mesquite wood, with reliefs of geometric shapes and fish, along with a hand with pomegranate in sandstone.

These symbolize the Archangel Raphael and John of God. The royal cartographers did not understand the native Mexican mapmaking methods and they had been forgotten in storage for centuries until they were brought to Mexico and San Miguel de Allende's exhibition at the Centro Cultural Los Arcos.

The Camino Real English: The Casa de Inquisidor English: Inquisitor's house is located between Hernandez Macias and Hospicio streets.

The Angela Peralta Theater was originally designed to host opera. It was inaugurated in with a performance by the most-prominent soprano of Mexico at that time, Angela Peralta.

It continues to host a variety of musical events such as the Jazz Festival and the Chamber Music Festival.

This line was constructed in the s with service beginning in As the municipal seat, the town of San Miguel de Allende has been the center of local government for about other communities, many of which have fewer than 50 people.

As of , [update] the municipality had a total population of , with 62, living or about The largest communities outside of the municipal seat include Los Rodriguez 2, people , Corral de Piedras de Arriba 1, people and Los Galvanes 1, people.

The municipality is located in the far eastern side of the state of Guanajuato. It has a territory of 1, The municipality extends over two of the state's natural regions: The entire municipality belongs to the national Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

This restricts urban development and agriculture in the area. The main river in the area is the Laja, which crosses from north to south before finally emptying in the Lerma River in the municipality of Salamanca.

The river currently has serious pollution issues because it is used for discharge of wastewater without prior treatment.

Most of this discharge is from the residential areas of San Miguel and Dolores Hidalgo. In addition to the river, there are four principal arroyos that pass by the municipal seat: The last receives most of the area's runoff during the rainy season and feeds the Las Colonias and El Obraje dams.

The most important dam in the area is the Ignacio Allende dam, located in the west of the municipality. While this dam controls flooding along the Laja River, local residents say that the water collected in its reservoir goes to the area around Guadalajara, far to the west of San Miguel, due to the provisions of the federal act creating the dam and reservoir.

Other dams in the area include La Cantera and Bordo Grande located in the south and north of the municipality, respectively, along with the aforementioned Las Colonias and El Obraje, which are mostly used for irrigation.

The municipality also has fresh water, thermal and alkaline springs, many of which are used as ecotourist attractions, such as the El Chorro, Montecillo, El Cortijo, Cieneguita, Atotonilco and Taboada spas.

Summers are moderately hot with a rainy season that generally producing sporadic thunderstorms. Winters are cool and moderate.

One exception to this is the extreme west of the municipality where the climate is wetter. With only people as of [update] , Atotonilco formally Sanctuary of Atotonilco is not the largest community in the municipality, but it is the best known due to its religious sanctuary, which has World Heritage Site status along with the historic center of San Miguel.

The Atotonilco sanctuary has plain high fortress-like walls. The style of the painting imitates Flemish painting, which was known through Belgian prints that the Spanish brought from Europe.

El Charco del Ingenio, located outside of the town, is an ecological reserve and botanical garden and is privately funded.

It is dedicated to the restoration and preservation of Mexican flora and propagates mainly cactus species in danger of extinction. The canyon was the center of a number of myths and legends during the pre-Hispanic period.

This spring was so powerful it was the hydraulic power for an enormous water wheel and water supply to the city thus, the name "Ingenio". The water from this spring rose in the fountains throughout colonial San Miguel.

An old dam that was part of this complex of hydraulic power became silted. A great flood ensued when the dam broke in during heavy rains.

It is a stable wetland area now for the botanic gardens, with areas of the reserve crisscrossed with walking paths. There are opportunities for mountain biking, rock climbing, bird watching, camping and horseback riding.

According to biographer John Virtue, " Stirling Dickinson is without doubt the person most responsible for San Miguel de Allende becoming an international art center".

Although only an amateur painter himself, Dickinson became co-founder and director of the Escuela Universitaria de Bellas Artes, an art institute that he opened in a former convent only a few months after his arrival.

Due to its growth as a tourist destination, some of the most obvious culture seen on the streets of the town relates to visitors, both foreign and Mexican.

To cater to these visitors, the town contains cafes, boutiques, art galleries, upscale restaurants and hotels, and a wide variety of bars and nightclubs.

These include the Instituto Allende with credits transferable to U. Many of the festivals here are purely Mexican, combining social activity with religious expression.

Throughout the year there are pilgrimages, all-night vigils, ringing church bells, processions and fireworks.

The angel's feast day is 29 September, but festivities take place for an entire week. Activities include private parties, sporting events, cultural events, indigenous dance and more.

The week is popularly called the Fiestas de San Miguel de Allende. The finale is a procession of the actual image of St. Michael usually high on the main altar of La Paroquia, and he is taken on a flower-covered dais to "visit" the main churches in the historic district.

Fireworks are a part of all festivities. Holy Week begins with an exhibition of altars dedicated to the Virgin of Sorrows and end with the Procession of Silence.

Then the procession begins, which represents the fourteen scenes of the Passion before his crucifixion. Many of the townspeople participate in the event, with children dressed as angels and adults in period clothing carrying statues of Jesus.

The procession winds its way along the main streets of the historic center completely in silence. There are also secular and cultural festivals during the year.

One of the purposes of the event is to bring this type of music to streets and other public venues as well as traditional concert halls such as the event's home, the Angela Peralta Theater.

Bicentennial celebrations also included events such as the Ballet Mazatl. SMART is a multi-media cultural festival, held annually in May, that combines exhibits by Mexican artists with a variety of culinary and social events at local hotels, including the festival founder Hotel Matilda, Dos Casas Hotel and L'Otel.

San Miguel de Allende has long had a reputation as a haven for visual artists. In the Spanish colonial period, San Miguel was the largest recipient of funding for the arts.

Rich Spanish families like the Condes de la Canal paid for the sumptuous Chapel of Loreto and employed artists in all aspects including baroque music compositions.

A fragment of that musical past is used in the Holy Week music accompanying the celebration of mass around Easter. Since the s, when Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros worked there, it has attracted professional and amateur painters, sculptors and printmakers to the classes and workshops frequently held.

It is not unusual to see sketch artists working on the street and selling their work. The town annually hosts an important free film festival, the GIFF.

Writers have lived here since the mid 20th century. Beat poet Neal Cassady died on the railroad tracks just outside town. Other writers who have lived or spent time here include W.

Another writing event is Poetry Week, which began in Much of the municipality's economy is tied to the influx of tourists and foreigners who come to live, mostly retirees.

Tourism accounts for almost all of the municipality's income from outside. This has not lessened San Miguel's attraction for foreign visitors and retirees as homes and hotels here are still significantly cheaper than in the US or Europe.

This growth has spurred the development of newer hotels, resort and vacation home developments, especially on the corridor between San Miguel and Atotonilco.

Another important sector is restaurants. The central part of the city lies in a valley through which flows the channeled Tijuana River.

Housing development in the Tijuana Hills has led to eradication of many seasonal mountain streams. This lack of natural drainage makes places within the city vulnerable to landslides during the rainy season.

Tijuana is noted for its rough terrain, which includes many canyons, steep hills, and mesas. The river's lower reaches harbor the last undeveloped coastal wetlands in San Diego County, and some of the last in Southern California, amidst a highly urbanized environment at the southern city limits of Imperial Beach.

As Downtown Tijuana was built at the bottom of the river valley, the district is subject to seasonal flooding created by drain-off from the Tijuana Hills.

During this time, east-bound portions of the Via Rapida east-west highway may be blocked off by the Tijuana Police due to hazardous conditions.

The city's skyscraper history is relatively recent. Overall, the city maintains 33 completed structures with other proposed and under-construction skyscrapers.

The Tijuana skyline is the fifth largest skyline in Mexico and is located in the Zona Rio and to a smaller extent, Playas de Tijuana.

In the Zona Rio the buildings are concentrated on the Tijuana River, lined parallel to the river; and on the edges of the Tijuana Country Club.

In Playas the high rises are currently focused on the coast. Recent construction on high rises has begun in the aforementioned areas, as buildings such as New City Residential and Grand Hotel Tijuana have been developed and taken prominent places in the skyline as the tallest buildings.

From Tijuana's skyline the San Diego skyline can also be seen. The municipality of Tijuana is divided into eight administrative boroughs, or Delegaciones.

The Tijuana metropolitan area occupies all of borough seats. The boroughs are in turn divided into colonias or ejidos. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban planning , civil registry , inspection, verification, public works and community development and are served by a delegado.

It has characteristics of the Mediterranean climate Csa found to the immediate north, with most of the annual precipitation falling in the winter, between the months of November and March.

During the rainy season, November through March, storms originate from fronts entering off of the Pacific Ocean.

January is the wettest month of the year for the city and during this time a periodic event, similar to June Gloom , is observed created by marine layer.

January is the coolest month, during which temperatures average In the city April signifies the end of winter and the start of Santa Ana winds — observed in Southern California as well.

The hottest months in the city, also the dry season, are August and September, during which temperatures average Summers are by far the driest time of year since influences from the California Current and the North Pacific High suppress the formation of rainfall caused by the North American Monsoon.

As in coastal Southern California, air pollution sometimes occurs during periods of temperature inversion, especially during summer and fall, but unlike Mexico City is seldom severe and in recent years has lessened due to cleaner car engines.

Frost and snow are rare phenomena in the city as temperatures are usually well above freezing. Yet, in December , snow fell in the city and in January feather light snow fell in the east of the city.

However, excessive amounts of snow fall have never been recorded in the city. On February 14, a winter storm caused an unusual snowfall in the upper reaches of the hills of the city.

Tijuana has a diverse cosmopolitan population which includes migrants from other parts of Mexico and from all over the world. Tijuana has one of Mexico's largest Asian populations, predominantly consisting of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese immigrants.

Tijuana also has a large and rapidly growing population of United States citizens, mostly from Southern California.

The city also has many Lebanese , Italian, French, Spanish citizens. Recently, the city has received a large influx of Haitian immigrants.

Because of the diversity of Mexico and the influx of immigrants from almost every region in the country, there are no accurate estimates on ethnicity or race of the current population.

The heavy influx of immigrants to the city and municipality of Tijuana has led to job creation in the form of over twin-plant maquiladora factories, which serve as the basis of employment for the majority of the working-class people in northern Mexico.

The high poverty level in Tijuana is attributed to the city's "magnet status" for people who have come from the poorer south of the nation and citizens from other nations seeking to escape from extreme poverty.

Tijuana holds a status that provides the possibility of employment as well as higher education and the dream of crossing the border.

Tijuana and Baja California in general have much stronger economies and higher incomes than other Mexican cities along the United States border, as well as more moderate weather.

Tijuana today is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico with an average of 80, people moving to Tijuana yearly. The city experiences the construction of 26, new settlers a year [ citation needed ] that has led to the unregulated, illegal squatter homes that takes place in the hills and valleys of ever expanding Tijuana, most of these areas are still without city services like sidewalks, paving, streetlights, and public transit.

This is an ongoing process: Squatter areas are home to displaced and uprooted people, among them the indigenous and poverty stricken, migrants deported from the USA, many of whom are also without Mexican citizenship.

In recent years, working class suburban housing estates have sprung up in the fringes to provide safe homes and a sense of land ownership, to escape and isolate their families and young ones from the violence of the drug war and squatter areas, these outlying communities tend to be much better equipped than their squatter counterparts.

Nevertheless, some remote areas are drug lords plantations for narcotics, and delinquency spreads to even areas that are considered safe havens, which periodically come to light in the newspapers.

National Population Council CONAPO data has estimated that by , growth rates maintaining, the city will become the second largest in Mexico and anchor to the fourth largest metropolitan area in Mexico.

The suburban sprawl observed in Tijuana leaves the downtown and beach areas relatively affluent. The population discrepancies may be explained by a few factors.

Shanty towns that have not been rasterized [ clarification needed ] and an undercount, people having left Tijuana for United States, and people leaving Tijuana for the interior of Mexico due to the intensification of the drug war, and suburbanization outside city limits but still inside the municipality.

Tijuana, because of the dreams of border crossers, and its relatively higher wages compared to the rest of Mexico, naturally attracts immigrants.

Since an improvement in security since , the population of Tijuana as reflected in the Mexican census is expected to return to its normal growth curve; the great reduction in violence should make the settlement of Tijuana an attractive option again versus fringe valleys, nevertheless exact figures from the census await.

Tecate Municipality , adjacent to Tijuana Municipality, has not yet been considered by the government as part of the metropolitan area.

However, there is great economic and cultural exchange between the cities regions though there are still expanses of rural land.

As Tijuana grows, many of its suburbs have been built increasingly inland, and in the direction of Tecate ; Valley of the Palms is a large planned city between the two.

Tijuana is well known for being the birthplace and base of the Tijuana Cartel. Homicides peaked in , when people were killed, [28] compared with in [29] and in the first eight months of During peak years of violent crime in the city, gun battles between rival cartels, and between cartels and the police, erupted in public.

In April , police found 1, shell casings on various streets after one battle left 13 suspected drug traffickers dead.

This was the highest number of murders since The PAN has been the dominant party in the city for 20 years.

Historically the PRI had been the dominant party in regional politics, until when the PAN began to dominate the city, until yet again, in , PRI began regaining prominence and won the Mayor's Office.

Less prominent parties also maintain relations with the dominant parties. Tijuana's importance and rise to a global city has led to its recognition among countries worldwide.

In addition to international cultural recognition, Tijuana has received political recognition and is a developing a political center currently host to eight consulates from European, Asian, and North American countries.

Tijuana is a large manufacturing center, and in addition to tourism, it serves as a cornerstone of the city economy.

In the past decade alone, Tijuana became the medical device manufacture capital of the North American continent, surpassing previous leader Minneapolis - Saint Paul.

The city's proximity to Southern California and its large, skilled, diverse, and relatively inexpensive workforce make it an attractive city for foreign companies looking to establish extensive industrial parks composed of assembly plants that are called maquiladoras , even more so than other cities in the US-Mexican border zone, taking advantage of the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA to export products.

At its peak, in Tijuana had roughly of these 'maquiladoras' today [ when? Many of the maquiladoras are located in the Otay Mesa and Florido sections of Tijuana.

There are also some high-tech firms and telemarketing companies in the city, drawing people with technical trade and college degrees to Tijuana.

One example is Telvista, a Texas-based telemarketing company that maintains three call centers along Blvd. This makes Tijuana a popular city for migrant workers as well as college graduates from other parts of Mexico as well as other countries to the south.

Binational economic development along the US—Mexico border is key to the development of Tijuana going forward.

Tijuana also relies on tourism for a major part of its revenue. About , visitors cross by foot or car from the San Ysidro point of entry in the United States every day.

Restaurants and taco stands , pharmacies, bars and dance clubs, and shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are part of the draw for the city's tourists, many located within walking distance of the border.

Mexico's drinking age of 18 vs. Tijuana is also known for its red-light district Zona Norte also referred to as La Coahuila after one of its main streets with legal prostitution in strip clubs and on the street.

Many medications still require a Mexican prescription, which can be obtained from adjacent doctors' offices. People filling up prescriptions for drugs classified in the US as Schedule II or Schedule III have found it more difficult to locate such medications, and the purchase of pseudoephedrine also has become restricted by Tijuana pharmacies, just as in the U.

To fill a prescription in Tijuana for any drug covered by the US Controlled Substances Act and legally bring it into the United States requires a prescription from the United States for re-import.

Americans can import up to a day supply of non-controlled medications for personal use to the USA from Mexico and other countries.

Businesses such as auto detailing, medical and dental services and plastic surgery are heavily marketed, and are usually much less expensive than in the U.

Tijuana is headquarters for Mexico's largest gambling concern, Grupo Caliente, and home to several of its casinos.

Tijuana possesses a diversity of shopping malls. Plaza Mundo Divertido is off of Tijuana's main east-west highway with arcades and rides for the whole family.

Plaza Carrousel , so named because the mall contains a children's merry-go-round, is minutes from the Cinco y Diez retail hub centered around a former five and dime store.

The beach community of Playas de Tijuana saw a burst of construction in , which yielded the Plaza Coronado complex next to the existing Comercial Mexicana-anchored Centro Comercial Playas.

Tijuana was the headquarters of store Dorian's department store chain until its demise in Tijuana, along with the nearby Valle de Guadalupe , has recently become a culinary hotspot due to its Baja Med cuisine, including chefs such as Javier Plascencia , but also for its tacos, other street food, food trucks, coffee houses and artisanal beer.

Tijuana is home to many private Primary Schools, Secondary Schools and High Schools as well as nationally high ranked colleges and universities.

These schools maintain recognition for their demands and high standards. Tijuana maintains multiple higher education institutions.

The city is the seat of the Colegio de la Frontera Norte COLEF , an institution of scientific research and higher education, specializing in the study of the problems in the border region between Mexico and the United States.

Many foreigners travel to Tijuana to drink and dance, buy prescription drugs , purchase beatiful and colorful. Although poverty is widespread throughout the city, a very affluent and prominent society has developed in Tijuana.

Gentrification is evident throughout certain districts. In they changed their actions guiding themselves towards a comprehensive national cultural policy.

It is composed of lecture rooms, video rooms, a library, an exhibition hall, the Museum of the Californias, a futuristic planetary movie theater that displays IMAX films, and a restaurant.

Another important culture center is La Casa de la Cultura, which comprises a school, a theater, and a public library.

Dance, painting, music, plastic arts, photography and languages are taught there. A large sized Rotary Club is also located in Tijuana.

Around the country club and Agua Caliente, many developments of wealthy and luxurious gated communities have filled the hillsides, most of which have views similar to Mount Soledad in San Diego or areas of Orange County.

Tijuana's most prestigious entertainment center is the Tijuana Country Club golf club, but the Agua Caliente Racetrack is the most notable that is open to the general public.

Parque Morelos has a small zoo and park space; Parque de la Amistad has a small pond, and a running and dirt-bike track.

Parque Teniente Guerrero is a park located downtown with a public library and weekend entertainment by clowns. All public libraries in Tijuana have Internet access; unfortunately, many of the available computers are not in service.

Plus a library card is needed to use the computers. To get a library card one must have a government issued id card plus one has to provide two special size photographs.

This of course leaves much of the huge immigrant population of Tijuana out of luck, as many of them don't have identification cards.

El Foro was an attraction for being a jai alai venue, but now is commonly used as a concert venue. Tijuana's nightlife scene is one of the city's strongest attractions.

Zona Rio, Tijuana's new Downtown, is home to some of the city's finest restaurants and bars. Another capstone of Tijuana's entertainment offerings is its adult nightlife industry, which includes the city's red light district as well as less conspicuous adult entertainment venues.

Tijuana also has a very active and independent artist community whose internationally recognized work has earned Tijuana the title of "one of the most important new cultural meccas", according to Newsweek.

Graffiti is widespread in Tijuana. Graffiti in Tijuana may seem at first to consist largely of simplistic tags and thus not as technically evolved, colorful, or accepted in the mainstream as the "pieces" of graffiti scenes of the United States, Europe, or Japan, but large, colorful graffiti murals adorn walls from both native Tijuanan artists as well as visiting graffiti writers, especially from California.

The Tijuanan art pieces show as much prowess and skill as those made by their more renowned U. Among other things, Tijuana has been the inspiration for Tijuana Brass and Los Tucanes de Tijuana and, more recently, the birthplace of Nortec music style and Ruidoson , resulting in a very large and active electronic music scene where groups and artists like Los Macuanos , Maria y Jose , Siberium , Hidhawk and Harpocrates emerged.

Tijuana also enjoys a large base of support in many other musical scenes such as mexican hip hop , reggae , hardcore , punk , black metal and house music.

Famous musicians are from Tijuana including the pop-rock singer-songwriter Lynda Thomas and Vanessa Zamora , the world-renowned singer Julieta Venegas , fusion rock projects like Tijuana No and international indie punk bands like Delux and Los Kung-Fu Monkeys.

Some European metal bands whose members cannot perform in the United States due to prior felony convictions in their own countries play music festivals in Tijuana for fans from both Mexico and the United States.

The team is composed mostly of players from Mexico and plays from February to July in the Municipal Auditorium.

They play their matches at the Estadio Caliente , a new 33, seat stadium. The team's mascot is the Xoloitzcuintle , a famous Mexican hairless dog.

Tijuana also has a long history of producing many world champion professional boxers, such as Antonio Margarito and Erik Morales.

Caliente Homes Stadium, is a multi-purpose center in Tijuana. It is mainly used for football matches, has a seating capacity of 21, spectators. Opened in June , according to the work schedule.

Subsequently, the stadium was used for football matches. For , professional baseball returned, now with a franchise LMB under the name of Toros de Tijuana , which, the following yea, changed its name to Colts as it had been known previously.

At first the facility was called Cerro Colorado Stadium, due to its location at the foot of the hill of that name. With the return of baseball, chain supermarkets Calimax bought the naming rights to the stadium.

In , the first season of Toros , the fans filled the stadium for most matches. On April 4, , the stadium was remodeled, marking the beginning of a new era for Toros de Tijuana.

When the river is flowing, the diversion system of the plant begins operating and diverts up to about mgd to the IWTP. The total amount of water being diverted must not exceed 25 mgd, based on a monthly average decided upon by permit conditions, although the IWTP can treat sustained flows up to 45mgd daily and peaks of 70mgd for a short period.

The diversion system regularly sends approximately six to eight million gallons of water daily to the IWTP. The plant is currently being upgraded to include a secondary treatment facility.

This plan was required as part of Public Law , put into order November 7, , which was written to allow the Bajagua project to move forward. The plants are intended to treat approximately 5mgd each, to tertiary levels and provide the reclaimed water to the surrounding areas for agriculture, industry etc.

There are several issues that they are facing: So, to dial a phone number from San Diego to Tijuana requires an international access code and Mexico's Country Code, 52 , before dialing the area code and the number.

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